**Quantum Mechanics**

In quantum mechanics, the coordinates *p* and *q* of phase space normally become hermitian operators in a Hilbert space.

But they may alternatively retain their classical interpretation, provided functions of them compose in novel algebraic ways (through Groenewold's 1946 star product), consistent with the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. Every quantum mechanical observable corresponds to a unique function or distribution on phase space, and vice versa, as specified by Hermann Weyl (1927) and supplemented by John von Neumann (1931); Eugene Wigner (1932); and, in a grand synthesis, by H J Groenewold (1946). With J E Moyal (1949), these completed the foundations of the **phase space formulation** of quantum mechanics, a complete and logically autonomous reformulation of quantum mechanics. (Its modern abstractions include deformation quantization and geometric quantization.)

Expectation values in phase-space quantization are obtained isomorphically to tracing operator observables with the density matrix in Hilbert space: they are obtained by phase-space integrals of observables, with the Wigner quasi-probability distribution effectively serving as a measure.

Thus, by expressing quantum mechanics in phase space (the same ambit as for classical mechanics), the Weyl map facilitates recognition of quantum mechanics as a **deformation** (generalization) of classical mechanics, with deformation parameter *ħ/S*, where *S* is the action of the relevant process. (Other familiar deformations in physics involve the deformation of classical Newtonian into relativistic mechanics, with deformation parameter *v/c*; or the deformation of Newtonian gravity into General Relativity, with deformation parameter Schwarzschild radius/characteristic-dimension.)

Classical expressions, observables, and operations (such as Poisson brackets) are modified by ħ-dependent quantum corrections, as the conventional commutative multiplication applying in classical mechanics is generalized to the noncommutative star-multiplication characterizing quantum mechanics and underlying its uncertainty principle.

Read more about this topic: Phase Space

### Famous quotes containing the words quantum and/or mechanics:

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